Click here for the 2006 syllabus
This course aims to equip students with a strong conceptual foundation
for understanding the dynamic process of technological innovation and
its socio-economic impacts.
Students will be introduced to the importance of technological innovation
as a driver for value creation and economic growth. The dynamics of technological
change will be analyzed through the concepts such as technology life-cycles,
dominant design, disruptive technologies, network externalities and aggregate
project plans. The key technology commercialization processes through
which an innovative idea is transformed into a successful product or service
in the marketplace will be studied, and the key organizational/management
factors and socio-economic/competitive environmental factors that influence
the effectiveness of these processes will be highlighted. Students will
be exposed to the challenges in technological innovation, including encouraging
risk-taking and inventive creativity, discovering market opportunities,
protection of intellectual property, attracting resources, entrepreneurial
leadership and team building, overcoming resistance to change, etc. Technological
innovation within existing organizations as well as through new start-ups
will be examined. Case studies of real world examples of technological
innovation, together with guest speakers, will be used to illustrate the
concepts discussed in class.
This course is for undergraduate students. If you are a graduate student,
you may be interested in MBA5251/MMT5002/TR5201(Management
of Technology) or MBA5252/MMT6008 (Technology
|WHO SHOULD TAKE THIS COURSE?
This course is designed for undergraduate students, to be taken as part
of the Minor
in Technopreneurship program offered by the NUS Entrepreneurship Center.
- This course is a prerequisite for the New Venture
- This is not a "practical" course,
where you get a "how to" guide. This is a conceptual
course to get you thinking about fundamental ideas. However, being conceptual
doesn't mean this class is boring: We covers many real-life industries
and cases (e.g. disk drives, Palmpilot, Sony, Pharmaceuticals, NTT,
Dell, etc). Previous students have said they learnt many useful lessons
- As an analogy, people who learn to play a musical
instrument need to learn both the Theory of Music as well as to practice
regularly. Practice is essential and some people are born gifted, but
even they can push even further with a strong theoretical foundation.
TR2202 is similar to the Theory of Music class -- it will give you a
deeper understand that will help you in the more "practical"
courses such as New Product Development and New Venture Creation.
You don't have to be a "techy" to take this class and do well. In a recent semester, a high percentage of students from non-technical faculties got an "A", "A+" or "A-". On average across the last 3 semesters, students from Arts, Business and SDE did about as well as those from Engineering, Science and Computer Science. The top student in 2004 was from a non-technical faculty.
- Modular Credits: 4 MCs
- Classroom hours per week: 3
- No of hours of preparation per week: 4 (includes time for group projects)
|REQUIREMENTS AND GRADING
1. Class Participation (20%) comprising:
- Individual Participation (15%). Attendance will be recorded each week except during week 1. Class attendance counts for 15% of your overall grade.
- If you are absent for a valid reason, please email the instructor and provide documentary evidence. In such situations, your absence will not be used in computing your participation score. It is up to you to make up for the missed session. "Valid" reasons for absence include being certified medically unfit by a doctor, death in the immediate family, and serious accidents. It does not include sports trainings, cultural events, job talks, and other situations where you chose to attend those events instead of being in class.
- 5% Bonus: In addition, you can earn up to a 5% participation bonus for posting thoughtful comments and analysis on the IVLE forum. This is above and beyond the 100% total for the class.
are expected to analyze the readings and cases and contribute to class
discussions. Preparing for class should take around 2-3 hours per week.
Please do not come to class unprepared. The first week does not
count towards class participation as it is an introduction.
- In-Class Group Activities (5%). Students will be divided into
groups and will remain in those groups throughout the semester. Each
group participates in class discussions and debates. Everyone in the
group gets the same in-class grade.
Important: No marks are subtracted if you say
something "wrong". This helps other students clarify their
misconceptions. However, you will be penalized for keeping your mouth
shut! According to our guest speaker Yuan Lu
from 3M, "If you don't ask questions, you don't have ideas".
If you have something to say, no matter how silly, raise your hand.
Class participation is crucial because it helps
you build self-confidence. If you want to be an entrepreneur, you
must be able to articulate your case convincingly to venture capitalists
and others. And you must think quickly on your feet!
2. Group Project and Critique (30%):
- Each group will be assigned a project by the instructors. The group
is responsible for investigating the topic assigned and writing a report (15%).
In addition, each group will be assigned one of the other projects
to critique (10%). The purpose of the critique is for you to learn from one
another. It should contain constructive criticisms and additional insights.
Each student will be peer-reviewed by the other members of the group (5%). click here for further
details about group projects.
3. Final Exam (50%):
- Two hours. Two questions. Answer all parts of both
- Open book. Bring along the case studies you discussed this semester.
- Previous exams (we knew you'd ask!): 2004-Nov, 2004-Apr,
- You are not allowed to bring "any palm-top PC, electronic organizers/digital
diaries/dictionaries and notebook computers" [Registrar]
- Read these for good exam tips: MIT,
Ground rules in class
- Turn off your handphone/pager.
- You may bring drinks. Given the timing of this class, you may bring food provided
it does not have a strong aroma.
- Be pro-active. Class participation matters!
What to do if you missed class:
- If you cannot make it to class, read the class slides and spend 10 minutes with a classmate to learn
what you missed. View the webcast.
- As mentioned above, the first week does not count towards class participation.
- If you missed a session during which your group presented, you will
not earn points for in-class group activites (sorry, but we have to
be fair to your group members). If you missed class for a valid reason,
you can request the chance to join another group temporarily for the in-class presentation.
Guidelines for Assignments:
- For written assignments, 1" margins on all sides, 10 or 12 point
fonts, 1.5-line spacing.
- No late assignment
will be graded.
- IMPORTANT: Please
read this important warning
on plagiarism. [Plagiarism
|TEXTS AND REFERENCES
Textbook: you are not required to purchase a textbook.
IVLE eLibrary: The main readings are available in digital format
The NUS Library has obtained copyright permission for you to download
service is provided free of charge.
Xanedu Coursepack: Students will be required to purchase
an online courespack from http://www.xanedu.com.
- It contains material that is copyrighted and for which a fee is required
by the copyright holder.
- The estimated price of this coursepack is USD20
- The Xanedu coursepack looks like this
(don't panic - it taks awhile to load...).
- Please pay us cash (Singapore Dollars) in week 3. NUS will forward
your payment to Xanedu. NUS does not earn anything from this transaction.
Supplementary (on reserve at library):
- Managing strategic innovation and change : a collection of readings
/ [edited by] Michael L. Tushman, Philip Anderson, New York : Oxford
University Press, 1997. [Library
- Managing Innovation: Integrating technological, market and organizational
change, 2nd edition, by Joe Tidd, John Bessant and Keith Pavitt (2001),
John Wiley and Sons.
- Innovation management : Strategies, implementation and profits / by
Allan Afuah, New York : Oxford University Press, 1997.
Further exploration: http://mot.kwanghui.net
Glossaries of Business Terms:
- New York Times [www].
- Washingtonpost [www].
IVLE: Please subscribe to course TR2202
on the NUS Integrated Virtual Learning Environment. It contains class
slides, an online discussion forum and course videos. This is where you
will submit assisgnments and group projects.
Webcast: Each session is recorded. You can access these recordings
from the IVLE multimedia section for this course, or here.
They are useful if you missed class and want to
catch up, or just for you to review/revise materials you might have missed
during class time.
Topic and Readings
I. Technological Change
12 Jan 05
Overview: Can innovation be managed?
- Please read these prior
to attending the session:
Kwanghui Lim & Sarah Cheah
19 Jan 05
How Does Technology Evolve?
- Read: Utterback, James (1994),
Dominant Designs and the Survival of Firms and Innovation
and Industrial Evolution, Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation,
Harvard Business School Press, pp. 23-37 and 91 to 96. [IVLE eReserve]
- Read: Foster R. (1986), The
S-Curve: A New Forecasting Tool, Chapter 4 in Innovation:
The Attackers Advantage, Summit Books, Simon and Schuster:
NY, pp. 88-111. [IVLE eLibrary]
26 Jan 05
Managing Disruptive Technologies
- View the Christensen video on Disruptive
- Read: Bower, Joseph L.; Christensen, Clayton M..(1995), Disruptive
Technologies: Catching the Wave, Harvard Business Review, Jan/Feb95,
Vol. 73 Issue 1, p43-54. [IVLE
Case study: Toyota: Driving the Mainstream Market to Purchase Hybrid Electric Vehicles (2003). IVEY904A03 [Xanedu]
Also, revisit the Google case.
II. Competing in High-tech markets
2 Feb 05
- Guest Speakers: Mark Lim, Director, Tan Peng Chin LLC [web].
- Browse the following websites to learn about patents, copyrights, trade secrets, etc:
- IPOS Spore [ipos] - explore the "about ip" section.
- US Patent Office [uspto] , US copyright office, para 1&2 [click], Patents.com [click].
- Optional: NUS Patent Database [click] and NUS Library [click]
- Optional: Mansfield p. 217-223.[Jstor] [IVLE eReserve]
- Optional: Markus Reitzig, "Strategic Management of Intellectual Property", MIT Sloan Management Review; Spring2004, Vol. 45 Issue 3, p35-41 [eReserve].
Case study: How well does Google manage IP?
- Skim these articles:   , Optional: 
9 Feb 05
Chinese New Year. No session today. Happy Holidays!
16 Feb 05
Profiting from Innovation
- Read: Teece, D., Profiting from Technological Innovation: Implications for Integration, Collaboration, Licensing and Public Policy, The Competitive Challenge, 1987.[IVLE eReserve]
- Read: Evan Schwartz, Who Really Invented Television, Technology Review, Sep/Oct 2000. [IVLE eReserve]
Case study: Elliot Lebowitz HBS9-297-094 [Xanedu]
20-24 Feb 2005
2 Mar 05
Standards and Network Externalities
- Read: David, Clio and the Economics of QWERTY,
American Economic Review, 1985.[Jstor]
- Read: Shapiro, C. and H. Varian (1999). The Art of Standards
Wars, California Management Review, 41(2): 8-32. [IVLE
- Optional: Cusumano, Myonadis and Rosenbloom, "Strategic
Maneuvering and Mass-market Dynamics: The Triumph of VHS over Beta",
Business History Review, Spring 1992. [IVLE
Case study: NTT Docomo: Establishing Global 3G Standards (HKU241) [Xanedu]
(Note: this is not the same as HBS 9-502-031 used in previous semesters)
9 Mar 05
Managing technological transitions and disruption
- Read: Charitou, C. and Markides, C. (2003),
"Responses to Disruptive Strategic Innovation", Sloan Management
Review, Vol 44, No2. [IVLE eReserve]
- Skim: Linux, Inc. Businessweek (2005) [BW]
- Optional: Cooper, A.and Smith,
C. (1992), "How Established Firms Respond to Threatening Technologies",
Academy of Management Executive, Vol 6, No. 2. [eReserve]
Case study: Novell: Open Source Software Strategy, HBS#9-605-009
16 Mar 05
Managing Scientists and Engineers
- Read: Badawy, M.K., "Industrial Scientists and Engineers",
Fall 1971; Vol. 14, Iss. 000001; pg. 11-17. [eReserve]
- Read: Farris, George F. (2002) , "Leading Your Scientists
- Read: Innovation, Inc. Harvard Business Review, Aug2002, Vol.
80 Issue 8, p18-20 [eReserve]
- Real Fun: Joel on Software (Two Stories) [www]
In-class video on organizational creativity.
III. Organizing for Innovation
23 Mar 05
Creating a creative organization
- Read: Shapero, Albert (1997) “Managing Creative Professionals,”
Chapter 5 in The Human Side of Managing Technological Innovation, Ralph
Katz, Ed., Oxford U. Press, 39-46. [eReserve].
- Read: Studt, Tim, "3M--Where Innovation Rules," R&D
Magazine; Apr2003, Vol. 45 Issue 4, p20-25.[eReserve]
- Optional: Brown, J.S. (1991), "Research that reinvents
the Corporation", Harvard Busines Review Jan/Feb '91, [eReserve]
Guest speakers: Mr. Pang
Hoke Woei, Technical Supervisor, 3M Singapore
(and/or Ms Ho Yuan Lu and Ms Sheng Thong Yin, 3M Technologies (S) Pte
30 Mar 05
New Product Development- An Introduction
- Read: Wheelwright and Clark, "Creating Project Plans to
Focus Product Development," Harvard Business Review, 1992. [eReserve].
- Skim: Lynn, Gary(2002), "How to build a Blockbuster",
Harvard Business Review, Oct2002, Vol. 80 Issue 10, p18-20. [eReserve]
- Skim: Clark, Kim B. and Steven C. Wheelwright (1992), Organizing
and Leading Heavyweight Development Teams, California
Management Review, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Spring), pp. 9-28.[eReserve]
- Optional: von Hippel, Eric (1986), "Lead Users: A Source of
Novel Product Concepts," Management Science 32, no. 7 (July):791-805.
Case: Strategic Inflection: TiVo in 2003 (A). [Xanedu]
6 Apr 05
Alliances and Make/Buy.
Guest speaker: Walter
Lee, AVP, Broadband/Business IP Solutions, Starhub.[info]
- Read: Chesbrough and Teece, When is virtual virtuous?
Organizing for innovation, Harvard Business Review Jan-Feb 1996,
- Read: Roberts and Berry, "Entering new businesses: selecting
strategies for success", Sloan Management Review (Spring 1985),
pp 3-17. [eReserve]
- Optional: Doz and Hamel, "The use of alliances in implementing
technology strategies", chapter 37 of Managing strategic innovation
and change : a collection of readings / [edited by] Michael L. Tushman,
Philip Anderson, New York : Oxford University Press, 1997.[eReserve]
IV. Its Your Turn!
13 Apr 05
Putting it All Together
- Guest speaker: Eugene Low, Managing Director, Hardwarezone.com [website]
- Optional: Hamm, John (2002), "Why Entrepreneurs Don't Scale," Harvard Business Review, Dec2002, Vol. 80 Issue 12, p110-116.[eReserve]
- Optional: Zider, Bob (1998), "How Venture Capital Works,"
Harvard Business Review; 11/01/98. [eReserve]
- Optional: [VC
Encyclopedia] chapters 1 & 2, [CCH Toolkit], [GEM report]
Optional: Watch Startup.com the movie.
Discussion of Previous Exam Quesitons
- During the second half of this session, we will discuss previous examination papers. You should attempt these questions beforehand. Several groups will be invited to present your answers and lead the discussion.
20 Apr 05
NUS Reading Week.
28 April 05
Final Examination (28 April 2005 at 5pm) . [Registrar]